- Sumal Kumar Gurung (Shulabh)
The term ‘security’ in a wider sense covers a wide range of concept in our day to day life. It not only covers the single individual and its associated needs in terms of security, but, also it has more significant meaning which includes all the global activities associated with all mankind. In brief, we can define the term ‘security’ is a safety measure to be taken to save and prevent ones belongings i.e. life and property (includes all pattern of wealth i.e. cash, bank deposits, land, factories, mortgages and valuable goods etc) from illegal person or authority and to prevent the crime. If we go thoroughly with the pages of history, we find adoption of various methods of security measures to secure their life, land and property from the intruders or invaders in the past and also we have seen a wide range of modern technology to assist us in adopting the security measures to prevent from loss, theft and burglary in our modern times. Some of the ancient great works like “The Great Wall of China” and other ancient fortresses are also an example to secure the country from foreign invasion. We can also see the modern sophisticated devices which monitor each and every friction of moment in a computerized system to safeguard the life, property and prevent the crime. No individual is safe and can not lead a normal life smoothly without any sense of security in any form for the survival and existence. Similarly, the lack of security can lead a shock of mass destruction in the present world scenario where every corner of the globe is flamed with the dumping of NBC (Nuclear, Biological and Chemical) weapons and with a horror of nightmare terrorist haunting activities. Our time of present world is the grave concern of heavy security management and should not forget the security measures to be adopted at every stage and every walk of life. No one is safe unless the person is aware of the self security with the present global scenario. The term security does not only covers the safe guard of the mankind from invasion, theft, burglary, but it has also the threat related with natural disasters i.e. floods, volcanoes, great earthquakes and great epidemics like plagues, Tsunami, Hurricane Katrina and SARS etc.
2.Concept of security, Its nature and Classification.
In order to simplify the meaning of security and its concept and with a view to enhancing and broaden the meaning, we can classify the security and its nature into three parts which are outlined briefly in the succeeding paragraphs.
3.Security of Man.
It includes all the mankind and living creatures of the world that always tend to protect self and defending himself to survive peacefully either from mankind or from the any natural disaster or epidemic. The ‘evolution theory of Darwin’ also advocates the theory of security for an existence by all living beings in the world since its origin. Right from the Stone Age man preferred shelter, food and in later stage needed materials to cover the body. They were always in a threat from attacking by any ferocious animals or intruders other than their group. So, they were bounded to be adopted security measures either by means of hiding in the caves or constructing some improvised shelters to safeguard their lives. Since, the very beginning of the civilization, security of man plays a vital role in changing the historical facts and events. The light of civilization has developed mankind to rise at its highest point through many stages of civilizations. Our forefathers had never imagined the wonderful modern technology and scientific inventions which are now a magical boon to our modern world and also some inventions i.e. nuclear war heads, biological and chemical weapons which are the threat to mankind and can be taken as a curse. In the past, biological weapons were used to kill the enemy in mass if they were unable to defeat their enemies in the ancient time wars and also we witnessed that in some past wars chemical weapons were also used which killed a thousand numbers of human beings. Even in years, there happened to be the threat of “Anthrax in USA”. We have also witnessed the horrific devastation and mass destruction of nuclear weapon which was dropped during World War II by the USA at Nagasaki and Hiroshima (Japan) during the last stage of the war (August, 1945). Great battles were fought and as a proof, all these events are recorded in the pages of history and the main cause of fighting a battle is man itself. The side or the nation celebrated and benefited on getting victory to their enemy which had the strong security of man to defend them and defeat others. Life is precise and valuable than any other thing, so, since the origin of the evolution process until our time, we always consider that life is more important than any other thing. Our prime action is always focused to save the life i.e. survival and for an evidence of existence. Security of man is taken as one of the key factor to define the term security as a security of man. Every individual and every country always remains in a security threat from man itself. Mankind has always struggled for the self defense and to save its community since its origin of evolution.
4.Modern concept of man and security.
The security of a family, society and nation depends upon the tradition or practice as how a man is coped up with the environment according to his natural behavior, understand the needs of the time and manipulate to govern and safeguard the life. In modern age, the security of man is being adopted from family level to nation as a whole in various forms. When we intend to leave our house, we never forget in securing the house with a padlock. Similarly, every house and country is secured with a legal boundary either regulated by a state law or national law. All these means of security are created by human being itself. The mankind has seen many ups and downs of the civilizations and many great wars enabled us to think about the security of the man and the world. In modern age, we have developed the rule of law to defend the fundamental rights of every human being. Many societies and associations are, now days, in operation to assist the sovereignty of a nation. History has witnessed and we have seen that the age of barbarian in the past as how the weak were treated because of the fact that there was no any existence of state of law or the international law and the trend was lasted long for many centuries where the rule was only meant for “survival of the fittest”. After the failure of League of Nations during early twentieth century, the world faced two Great World Wars and the consequences of these wars showed us the horrific devastations, famines, genocides and loss of everything and as a result United Nations of Organizations (UNO) was established in 1945. We have now United Nations Organization to keep peace and harmony and to defend the sovereignty of weak nations and from invading by stronger nations to small nations and also it has a program of manifolds to safeguard and develop the prosperity of the mankind. The security of man in other sense according to modern point of view is that to remain safe and to prevent unpleasant incidents. Mankind is always threatened by natural disasters like earthquakes, eruption of volcanoes, floods, fires, tsunamis and many other natural calamities like drought and famines etc. Therefore, the modern concept of security covers a vast range of safety and security. Various organizations like Red Cross Societies, Green Peace Movement, programs led by UNO for the welfare of mankind and many other organizations are organized to help the poor and effected population. We have now many preventive measures and solutions to safeguard the mankind and its security. Each society or nation has its own instrument of security defined in the constitution for the safeguard of the mankind.
5.Security of Material.
Security of material is the second factor in security field as it is always co-existed with the man. The term material includes all sorts of property in a form of cash, bank deposits, valuable items material or the value equivalent to the possession of an individual, society and a country in a form of wealth. Wealth or property is the main cause which leads an unwanted incident of crimes such as theft, burglary, looting and destruction causing a horrific lost of man and material. We can trace out the cause of great wars fought due to owning material (property or wealth) of others possession either it be in a form of land or any other means related with material. Even, now the people of Manhattan in NY, if they recall, are in nightmare due to the horrific incident of 9/11 which was an unbelievable disaster. Therefore, the term material according to security sense includes all aspects of property in any means or form.
6.Historical back ground with regard to Security of Material.
Right from the days of Alexnader the Great (an emperor from Greek), Julius Caesar the Great (Roman emperor) and Genghis Khan the Great (Mongolian emperor), all these great invaders conquered most part of the globe in their times was due to the attraction of wealth and prosperity. For several centuries Arabs were in a series of conquest of India due to huge possession of wealth with Indian States of those days. India once, during her golden era, famed to be the living nest of the golden birds. History tells us how the temple of Somnath (Now in Gujarat, India) was sacked for seventeen times with a brutal attack by the rulers of Ghazani and Arabs. The motive behind attacking the temple was to loot the valuable treasury/wealth kept inside the temple. In those days the people of India were in a trend to offer and keep the wealth in a temple according to their religious belief. Material in security sense does not mean only the wealth and property, it has a wider sense i.e. it also includes all the destructive agents of NBC as well. Since the development of weaponry we find that many destructive tools are also being invented. During the Gupta Era which considered as Golden Period of the Indian History, we find that human being was used as a weapon to kill the enemy if they could not be defeated in battles. In those days, “Vish (Vikh) Kanya” “Poisonous Girls” were processed with a technique of snake biting from poisonous snakes from very young. The girls selected for that kind of purpose were very beautiful and it has illustrated by the historians that even a single stroke of kiss by these poisonous “Vikh Kanyas” could kill a strong man with sound health. These human tools were in a trend of manufacturing and producing for killing the powerful enemies in those days, but, in later stage it had adverse effect for the mankind and also effected badly at own side.
7. Modern concept of material and security.
We have various means of safety and security in modern days. In ancient times, we get an example of great creation adopted as a safety measures by the first Great Emperor of China for the Security of his population from the invaders constructing The Great of Wall of China. We have many means to safeguard the material with modern technologies in our modern days. While we talk safeguarding of the material, we should not forget that the prominent role played by other means in safeguarding the material in natural way. Sometimes we can consider great snowy mountains, rivers and oceans play as a barrier to outsiders to invade. Similarly walls, bollards, fences, barriers and other safeguarding tools or devices are the means of security of material in our modern days. Also, in modern days we have many sophisticated advanced computerized devices, tools which enable mankind to keep the safety and security of material in many ways. The world of modern science with its electronic devices each and every thing became possible and we are now conquering the universe and whole solar system. We not only aware of the security system of modern age, also we have developed various ways of precautions, procedures through the centuries experiments in dealing and handling with emergency in the event of any unwanted hazards or incidents..
8. Security of Information.
As defined in preceding paragraphs, security of man and material always co-existed and move shoulder to shoulder. The most important factor to unify these two elements is information. Without any source of information we can not even imagine to explain the concept of the man and material keeping in view of security sense. All the words and sentences expressed in a form of information in this article also based from the information outlined in the books and obtained from others through many means. Information in many ages played vital role in creating historical events. The historical records are based on the information and facts outlined in the history from a particular period with a proof as evidence. Powerful nations existed in this world because of their strong informative security system. In modern age we get FBI, CIA, CID, RAW and KGB etc are as security agents to maintain peace and security of their respective nations. The powerful nations of the world have their own confidential security agents operating in various parts of the globe, almost in every nation. The cold war and diplomatic solutions are always based on the information provided by the security agents. The world is now in the brinks of heightening the security information and many security agent teams of the world are functional and operational in each nation in a mission to influence the whole world of security. The current information of hot topic is to eliminate and disarm Iraq from mass destruction weapons. The restriction and disarming program of United States against Iraq is also based on the information collected from the reliable sources of their security agents. If we look back, in ancient time, The great epics of Hindus “Mahabharata” and “Ramayana” tells us how Kaurava conspired to kill Pandavas while on sleep in a Wax House (Laha House) built near the river Ganges. The confidential information through a reliable source saved their lives in the nick of time. Similarly, it was due to a reliable information given by the Bhibishana, the brother of Ravana who gave the secrecy of Ravana’s death, eventually Rama was able to kill Ravana in the battle. Right from the epic age to modern age, information plays the vital role in every walk of life. The importance of information in modern days not only plays the vital role, also it has a tremendous influence on every aspect of global activities. The world is now turning towards a global village due to the modern scientific inventions. We can get within friction of seconds reliable information from different corner of the world. Computer science has given us a lot of ideas and benefits with its advanced information technology and day by day modern scientists are inventing unbelievable scientific inventions. All these inventions can only be possible because of the information and facts received from the reliable sources.
The security of information always governs our day to day life. Husband and wife have their own secrecy and confidentiality. A family can always remain in safe if their sense of security information is reliable for any sort of danger being faced. The whole world is operational due to the fact of many reliable source of information. One can not even operate any electronic computerized device unless you get the information of ‘code’ to operate the particular device and breach of information regarding the ‘code’ may lead an adverse effect to the organization. Science has developed the advanced weather forecasting technology and we get forthcoming weather changes information through broadcasting media from which we feel safe and secure and we always tend to manage and ready to cope up with the coming changes of the weather. Therefore, we should always keep in mind about the security of information. Any bleach of security of information may lead an adverse effect and unpleasant incident.